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2015年11月6日 评论已被关闭

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2013年1月27日 评论已被关闭

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P2P技术科普(三)——- BT工作原理简介

2009年5月27日 没有评论



1, 有人向网络发一个资源请求(请求者)。有很多种搜索方法可供选择。

2, 当一个有该的资源的人(提供者)收到这个的请求,他会设法通知请求者:他那有其想要的东西。

3, 于是请求者去找提供者下载。



这样做还有一个致命的漏洞比如,我收到一个关于“海贼王”的请求,而且我有全套。按理说我应该通知请求者,让他来我这下。但是,让他来我这里下东西,对我来说,除了占我带宽,增加我中毒的风险,没有任何的好处。那我凭什么主动邀请他来??我何不装ytd,对该请求视而不见?非常不幸的是,跟我有相同想法的孙子在一般p2p网络里面占了大多数,甚至绝大多数。这就是搭便车问题(free riding)。所幸还是有一些大侠的,无偿的提供着大量资源,他们的存在使得那些一般的P2P得以侥幸存活。







于是,不论是学术界还是产业界都意识到,如果没有一种鼓励机制来刺激提供者,P2P将失去其天生的魅力。在众多解决方案中BT脱颖而出,迅速发展了起来。BT是简称,在国外可能会产生歧义,如British Telecommunications等等。所以大家尽量还是用全称,尤其是和外国人说的时候Bit-Torrenttɔrhttp://cache.lexico.com/dictionary/graphics/luna/thinsp.pngənt)。有人说BT是第三代的P2P,我认为这是因为他把P2P的理念更加深入的实现了。


BitTorrent当中,所有的资源都被切成很小的等份(碎片)。这里,你不需要知道怎么切,只需要知道有一种技术可以把一个文件切成很多小等份,还能把这些等份再重新的组装。在这个技术的支持下,bittorrent 中所有有相同请求的用户可以相互传资源的碎片。而且谁传的多,谁就将获得更多。具体技术如下:

1, 首先,有同样资源请求的人怎么能相互认识呢?


2, 那么,怎么找到tracker呢?


3, 于是,大家可以从网上找到torrent文件,并从中知道tracker在哪。再通过联系tracker



4, 还有一点很重要就是,bittorrent有自己的鼓励机制,就是说,你做的贡献大就会被鼓励,你不做贡献就会被惩罚。具体的操作是,每个人在下载的同时也上传。上传给谁呢?谁给我给的多,我就传给谁。而且我只传个前4名的(视具体软件具体分析,也可能是前8名或其他)。


举个例子,比如kaka下载‘春晚’,先从某春晚发烧友论坛下载了一个叫“春晚全集.torrent”的文件。kaka可以联系文件中的tracker,并得知‘程胖,日天,威,候泡,鸣’有想关资源。于是kaka分别与这五个人建立连接。通过检测链接的流量,kaka可知,比如从程胖那下载速度可达200k/s, 日天100k/s, 150k/s, 候泡70k/s,2k/s。于是kaka在上传的时候就不给鸣上传,而只给前4名传。由于鸣的上传只有2k/s,所以不太可能有人给他传,所以时间一长他可能会意识到,可能自己给的太少了,于是把上传带宽增加到了500k/skaka突然意识到,从鸣那里可以得到很好的速度,于是停止给候泡(70k/s)传转而给鸣传。(总给那些速度最好的人上传是为了能留住他们,当然,只有你传的足够多才能留得住人家)。


bittorrent大概的工作原理就是这样了,还有些细节这里不多说了。我个人认为Bittorrent的设计还是很不错的,但是其只适用于文件共享,或视频共享。然而网络中的资源又何止电影音乐??绝大多数的资源是不可分的,bittorrent的局限性还是相当大! 另一点可悲的是,大多数宽带用户是adsl,也就是说他们的下载上传的带宽上限差别很大,比如,下载最大2m/s,上传却只有100k/s。这也限制了bittorrent的发挥。




分类: p2p科普 标签:

P2P技术科普(二)—- 非结构化P2P及其搜索方法

2009年5月13日 没有评论





1,  Kaka发一个资源请求向中央服务器。

2,  这个服务器然后检索目录,并告诉Kaka,日天有他要的东西。

3,  Kaka直接去找日天下东西。





但是上天要求每一个用户都要给自己资源请求加一个限制,于是每个资源请求都只能走几步就必须停了,即使什么都还没找到。因为地毯式的搜索要消耗大量的网络资源,比如,平均一个人有4个邻居,如果资源请求的限制为5. 那么一共需要4+42+43+44+45=1364个信息,每个信息多大呢?大概k到几十k,也就是说一个信息就至少几m。一个人一个信息就这么大了,想想一个大网络,每人十几个邻居,限制提高到78. 这就是为什么中国很多地方,尤其是网吧限制p2p. 因为他们可怜的带宽都被p2p的请求信息占用了。





l  K-walkers: 第一个人先把消息发给k邻居,具体多少都自己定。 然后从第一轮邻居开始都只把消息转发给他们的一个邻居。

l  水纹式(涟漪式):先定一个限制。第一个人先发给第一层的邻居。如果第一层不灵,他们再发给他们的邻居。一旦找到资源就不再继续了。这样的话最坏的情况就是原始的地毯式。好点的情况就是,消息没到限制就找到了相应的资源,就停了。





1,  每个用户,资源都得有个名字。

2,  有一种数学加密方法,对这些名字加密。且保证如果名字不同,那么得到的结果就不同。

3,  如一资源和一用户加密后结果接近,就把该资源的地址放到相应的用户身上。




对这留个东西加密后分别得到: 1002003000 3002 23398








(为什么只有BitTorrent才是人越多就越快? 有何缺陷?)


分类: p2p科普 标签:


2009年5月9日 2 条评论

P2P技术之前,网络中的所有人大多都是通过一种叫做“客户端/服务器”的模式被组织在一起。一个服务器向很多客户提供服务。举个例子吧:  kaka有一台机子,里面存有全套的央视春晚,他想把他的挚爱分享给所有人。于是不论是通过广告还是别的什么方式,很多人知道了kaka有这个资源的消息。通过网络,他们就可以向kaka建立连接并从他的机子上下载。这样就形成了一个以kaka为中心的小型网络。这当中,kaka是服务器,其他人都是客户端。如图一





1.      服务器扮演的角色太重了,网络的一切都指着他。假如kaka不小心把电脑从6楼扔下去,整个网络就都瘫痪了。请注意,想要把一个服务器弄失灵的方法太多了,所以使用这中模式的风险是比较大的。

2.      网络的资源利用率低下。所有客户都只能从服务器那获得资源,因为他们之间不认识,甚至不知道相互的存在。然而,现实中,可能每个人都有自己独门的资源,比如日天有无数游戏,威哥有无数动漫电影…….总之,整个网络的资源可能是服务器的无数倍。但是苦无客户端之间没有交流的渠道,所以资源无法互通

3.      关于完美服务器的假设,基本不成立。


P2P技术就是要解决上述的问题已达到如下的效果: 所有人的资源都可以被别人找到并使用。没有哪个人特别重要,人人平等(peer-to-peer就是这个意思),任何一个人失灵都不会导致网络的死亡。


这里已Gnutella为例,对P2P基本原理进行介绍。 Gnutella是一种典型的P2P网络,很具代表性,以其为基础的软件有Limewire。这种网络里,没有服务器。用户之间任意连接,如图二左所示




Kaka认识 ‘日天’‘curt’‘威’, 日天认识‘小胖’,威认识‘候泡’,Curt 认识 ‘路’。当然真正的网络有至少有成百上千个用户,这里只是展示一个小的局部。



1, kaka给他的邻居们每人发一个请求消息,‘你们丫谁有走进新时代?’

2, 日天,威,curt吐血,‘谁tm听这歌啊,我没有’。于是把kaka的消息转发给他们的邻居:日天发给小胖,威发给候泡,curt发给路总。

3, kaka邻居的邻居们收到这个消息后,同样,先看看自己有没有。比如,候泡有这个歌,他就可以给kaka发个消息:‘爷这有,来下吧’

4, 卡卡于是可以直接去候泡那下载。


很多人说在p2p里面,所有人即是服务器又是客户端。应该这样理解,比如,kaka在上例中就是个客户端。 但当有人要想要春晚的时候,只要那人的请求消息能被转到kaka这,kaka就可以成为一个服务器。


最后要说的是P2P的现状以及应用。目前P2P与传统的‘客户端/服务器’模式可以说分庭抗礼,互为补充。那么为什么没能取而代之呢?因为,P2P也有自身的弱点,其中包括,1,占带宽(50%以上的网络带宽都是P2P占用的,搜索方法不灵)2,安全(不具体解释了,太专业了,总之和加密那些东西有关)3 诚信(没有中央控制,你传个毛片也可以告诉你是新闻联播)4,自私(我什么都不付出,有也说没有)5,知识产权保护(在中国相当于盗版的集散地)等等。 至于这些问题的对策以及其不足,以后会做专题介绍。



下期预告: 非结构P2P及其搜索方法


分类: p2p科普 标签:


2009年5月9日 没有评论

迅雷,msnskypepplive,  ppstream, BT……铺天盖地的P2P应用已然一定程度上改变了我们上网的习惯,方式以及质量。如果你想了解P2P技术,又懒得找,懒得看那些繁琐,模棱两可又及其抽象的中文资料,这里应该是一个你想来的地方。 我的目的是用比较俗的语言来对P2P技术做一个系统的介绍。这里,我会尽量避开不必要的术语,只告诉并解释你需要知道的。当然我不是什么专家,不过请你相信我回尽量保证我所提供信息的准确性和严谨性。我们没有任何商业目的,您的每一次点击都将对我国的慈善事业做出一份贡献。在此谨代表站长kakarott先生向诸位表示感谢。

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